How Are Vaccines Developed?
Careful testing is necessary to ensure new vaccines are safe and effective. Learn how scientists create vaccines, and why the process takes as long as it does.
Ask a Caltech Expert
Professor Pamela Bjorkman on SARS-CoV-2
Pamela Bjorkman, Caltech's David Baltimore Professor of Biology and Bioengineering, answers questions from the public on viruses, antivirals, and vaccines.
Terms to Know
Also known as immunoglobulin (Ig), a protein in the blood and component of the immune system used to fight pathogens (microbes that cause illness).
A test that looks for an antibody response to a specific pathogen, indicating that an individual has previously been infected. Learn more about antibody testing.
A foreign substance that triggers an immune response in the body.
A type of therapeutic used to treat a viral infection. Antivirals do not work against bacteria just as antibiotics do not work against viruses.
A process used to identify people who may have come into contact with a person infected with a disease and are thus at a higher risk of becoming infected themselves.
A family of viruses that have a crown-like appearance and cause illnesses ranging from the common cold to severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV).
The disease caused by the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19 is short for "Coronavirus Disease 2019."
A coordinated effort to slow the rate of new infections so that hospitals and other service providers have time and resources to respond to an outbreak. The "curve" refers to the shape, plotted on a graph or chart, depicting new infections over time.
Resistance to the spread of a contagious disease within a population as a result of a high proportion of individuals developing immunity.
The time between exposure to a virus and the emergence of symptoms or signs of illness. COVID-19 has an incubation period of two to 14 days. In most cases, symptoms appear about five days after infection. People can have COVID-19 and experience few to no symptoms.
One of a group of "nucleic acid amplification tests" that looks for the presence of viral genetic material in the body. They are used to diagnose active infections. Learn more about PCR testing.
In the context of disease, it is the act of isolating oneself due to the presence of symptoms. It is a means of controlling the spread of disease.
The practice of maintaining distance from or avoiding physical contact with others in an attempt to prevent the spread of disease.